Brand Name

Not specified

Dosage Form



Not specified


Not specified

Conditions Studied

  • Medicines were shipped from an established supplier in the Netherlands to the Nile Province Essential Drug Project in Sudan in May 1989
  • Containers arrived in July 1989 in Port Sudan and were not climate-controlled, with temperatures frequently reaching above 50 degrees Celsius in the first three months of storage
  • Medicines were distributed in February 1990, and samples were taken in August 1990 and compared to batch samples kept by the supplier

Temperature (degrees Celsius)

  • Frequently above 50
  • No climate control was maintained

Humidity (%)

Not specified

Countries Studied In


Definition of Stability

Not specified. Potency was compared between batches stored by the supplier and batches samples in-field.

Conclusions and Length of Stability

  • Potency:
    • Supplier: 88.6%
    • In-field: 75.8%
  • Author's conclusions: Adrenaline injection was unstable under the conditions studied.


Hogerzeil HV, De Goeje MJ, Abu-Reid, IO. Stability of essential drugs in Sudan. Lancet 1991; 338: 754-755.
MeSH Entry Terms
  • Adrenaline
  • 4-(1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)-1,2-benzenediol
  • Epinephrine Bitartrate
  • Bitartrate, Epinephrine
  • Epinephrine Hydrogen Tartrate
  • Hydrogen Tartrate, Epinephrine
  • Adrenaline Bitartrate
  • Bitartrate, Adrenaline
  • Epinephrine Hydrochloride
  • Hydrochloride, Epinephrine
  • Adrenaline Hydrochloride
  • Hydrochloride, Adrenaline
  • Epitrate
  • Vaponefrin
  • Medihaler-Epi
  • Micronefrin
  • Bird Brand of Racepinefrine Hydrochloride
  • Micronephrine
  • Racepinephrine
  • Racemic Epinephrine
  • Epinephrine, Racemic
  • Epifrin
  • Allergan Brand of Adrenaline Hydrochloride
  • Lyophrin
MeSH Reference:

Written by: Alex Evans, PharmD
Reviewed by: